In nature, The usual thing is that the parakeets take care of their young since they break the egg, until they can eat seeds by themselves. This whole process usually takes about 8 weeks. However, sometimes the parakeets reject the young, making the papillero parakeet chick run a lot of danger!
In cases where the parakeets reject their young, or if the smallest chick is at risk of dying because of their siblings ...The artificial feeding of the parakeet is used!
These parakeets are offered a porridge in several ways:
- If it is very small: a syringe will be used
- When the chick is bigger, one teaspoon will be used
Be an Australian parakeet, or an English parakeet. The term papillero parakeet refers to this way of raising them.
Why have a papillero parakeet as a pet
The parakeets that are raised by humans from a very young age (some from birth), they become very sociable parakeets, since they are not suspicious of animals that have been raised by their own species.
A parakeet that has been raised by hand, sees in these humans its parents. This makes many breeders prefer this method.
The truth is a parakeet that has been adopted as a young man will easily get used to humans.
How to feed a papillero parakeet
The most used method to feed a papillero parakeet is to use a syringe during the first 2-3 weeks of life. Once the parakeet can already approach its food by itself, it can be passed to use a teaspoon.
Some breeders, They use the probes to feed these animals. This should be the last resort! And besides, it should only be used if the animal is between life and death! If you are considering this technique, remember that:
- Feed a parakeet by catheter, can cause serious damage to the chick (and more if not done by a person skilled in these techniques).
- It is quite a method violent for the parakeet.
- It does not facilitate contact between the parakeet and its cu> (Photo via: youtube)
If you are considering having a papillero parakeet, there are several things you should keep in mind:
- The papilleros parakeets, they must feed on a food already prepared and sold in specialized stores. To this food you just have to add water, and make it at the right temperature.
- The longer the parakeet has, you should eat more calories, and your porridge may be thicker.
- To take care of a papillero parakeet, you must take care of their food and ...The room temperature! Papilleros parakeets have to maintain their body heat. It is best to use an incubator, infrared lamp, or a low power electric blanket (and never in direct contact with your skin).
- The ideal temperature for the papillero ranges from 28-30 degrees.
- To feed your parakeet with solid food, you must do it as in its own nature, that is ... Little by little! After 5 weeks you can start adding some seed or herb to your porridge.
Remember! Each papillero parakeet will evolve in a different way, ask a veterinarian specializing in these types of animals so that he can help you.
Normally after two and a half months, the parakeets are totally autonomous!
Basic data on the breeding process
The first step to be able to properly address the needs of the chicks is understand breeding habits parental.
We must keep in mind that parakeets can mate at any time of the year, and that the mating process lasts between three and four days. The female, at the end of the process, will begin to make her nest and spend periods of time in it.
Once we observe that the female does not leave the nest, we will know that she has already laid the eggs and that the incubation process has begun. The pre-incubation process usually takes about 10 days.
The average number of eggs per couple ranges from four to nine. Since the female will not move from her position until the eggs hatch, the male will feed and groom his partner. At 16-29 days, the chicks will be born.
Birth and feeding of parakeet pups
The mother does not lay eggs simultaneously. One by one, it will be putting them and incubating them, so the first eggs you have laid will hatch before, it may be up to one or two days apart.
During the first days of life, the chicks emit a sort of very sharp twitter to indicate to their mother that they are hungry. They will be fed a kind of porridge, which is nothing but food processed and regurgitated by the mother herself.
Thus, theParent feeding is very important for the offspring. Among the foods richest in nutrients, we find:
- Sepia bone
The calcium stoneput in the water It can also function as a supplement to avoid possible diseases. The seeds are a foodindispensable in your diet. The male also collaborates in the care of the young, and we must bear in mind that it will constantly enter and leave the nest to feed both the mother and the chicks.
Parents need as many nutrients or more as they still have to support themselves while trying to keep their offspring alive. In these stressful circumstances, there can also be a series of violent behaviors
Hygiene and cleaning of the Australian parakeet
We must pay special attention to hygienic conditions surrounding the habitat of the Australian parakeet at home, since hygiene is very important for both your health and ours. For this, "the water has to be changed daily, and if the cage has a grid that separates the bottom of the animal better, so that they do not have access to feces, etc.", explains Juan Carlos Uria.
On the other hand, we must also keep in mind that the ideal would be to give the food in hoppers that can not dig or get into the feeders, so that it is easier to maintain that much needed hygiene.
The food we provide to our parrots and that they ingest, must contain everything that the animal needs to stay alive and in good health. A big problem for both fans and breeders is that they don't know exactly what parakeet food needs.
In this case, poultry poultry farmers have an advantage, because the food requirements of the birds they care for have been scientifically researched and the feed industry can produce the exact mixtures. For parakeets that is still not possible.
During the breeding season the wild parakeet feeds especially of half-ripe seeds of grasses that, unfortunately, we can only offer our parakeets for a short period of the year as I think additional. Anyway we are left with the doubt of whether the I think we offer them has full nutritional value and it is enough.
The most important issues concerning the value of the food depend on the conditions of cultivation, harvest and storage, as well as its durability:
Culture: In countries where it is grown, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides are increasingly used. The use of these chemicals can cause losses in nutrients and also seriously damage the health of our pupils.
Harvest: if you are not sure that the feed has been harvested at the correct maturity stage, changes in the nutrient and vitamin content can be derived.
Storage: also damage from storage or transport, for example, from contamination or moisture, can damage the feed. The humidity and the fermentation processes that it entails can negatively influence the quality of the feed (in the worst case being poisoned by aflatoxins of certain molds).
Antiquity: Because we are not aware of the age of the feed, we cannot draw conclusions regarding its vitamin and nutrient content. What we do know is that the vitamin content decreases over time.
As we see, in feeding our parakeets There are a number of unknown factors. But, fortunately, throughout its domestication, the parakeet has largely adapted to the food offered. However, we must draw the conclusion that we must aspire to a diet as rich and varied as possible. This is valid for all types of parakeets.
We distinguish three groups of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids or fats. These nutrients are needed in relatively large quantities, on the one hand as the raw materials necessary for growth, cell renewal, feather formation, color, eggs, etc. and, on the other, as energy suppliers.
All vital processes, such as muscular activity, nervous activity or digestion, require a continuous energy supply, which is achieved through the oxidation (combustion) of certain food substances with the help of oxygen.
As a rule, The parakeet depends on an external supply of vitamins, since organic compounds called vitamins, essential for the animal organism, cannot be synthesized, with a few exceptions, by the body itself.
The vitamin intake must take place either through food or through the resorption of synthesized vitamins. A complete lack of vitamins that, as a rule only appears in extremely unilateral or monotonous feeding conditions, produces serious pathological conditions known by the name of avitaminosis.
An insufficient supply of vitamins can lead to a decrease in the vitality and resistance of animals against environmental influences, which may favor the risk of disease.
A small vitamin deficit can also negatively influence reproductive capacity and fertility, as well as the birth of chicks. In the feeding of the parakeet it is not typical that there is a total lack of one or more vitamins.
Anyway you have to take into account an unnecessary supply of certain vitamins. Such a partial vitamin deficit does not manifest itself in the primary phase through typical deficiency symptoms and is called hypovitaminosis.
However, we must bear in mind that vitamin deficiency symptoms may also be caused by antivitamins. They are called antivitamins those substances that, by their structure, are very similar to vitamins, but prevent their function or even eliminate or evict them, without being able to fulfill their function. Numerous antivitamins are known, especially of the B vitamins.
Among the antivitamins it is also necessary to include those substances that can inactivate the vitamins by dissociation or by complex formation, and can also cause a deficiency state. There are some food substances that contain these compounds, but there are also microorganisms that can form them.
Depending on their solubility, vitamins are divided into fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and water-soluble (B and C). Due to its effects, we distinguish between those vitamins (A. D, E, C) whose specific function is to form and conserve tissue structures. and those others that act mainly of coenzymes (complex B. vitamin K).
Since the requirements of vitamins differ greatly in the different species of birds, for the person who has them or takes care of them, the question of how much vitamin and of what kind a parakeet is to eat daily is always raised.
The vitamin content oscillates and depends on the internal and external conditions of the bird. For poultry the literature gives indications about the vitamin needs related to the kilogram of body weight and the daily amount.
However, these data referring to the necessary amounts of vitamins can not be transferred to the parakeet based on the weight of the body, it would be extremely dangerous. Although it is difficult to establish the amount and type of vitamins that the bird needs at a given time, there are certain basic rules for vitamin intake, as well as about the situations in which a vitamin supplement is indicated in the feed:
Anyone who does not regularly give them green and sprouted food (even outside the breeding season), should give them once or twice a week a multi-vitamin preparation. That can be done. on the one hand, in the drinking water and, on the other, in the food.
If the animal suffers from a digestive disorder, the absorption of vitamins through the intestinal wall may be difficult. Although, in reality, the feed is sufficiently rich in vitamins, in this case the bird will suffer a deficit of these substances, which will still weaken it further worsening its pathological state.
For this reason, in a similar state, a vitamin supplement must be provided. Surely, a short-term overdose of vitamins is not dangerous, since the bird eliminates the excess of most vitamins.
Certain medications as well as certain components of the food can also destroy the vitamins in the intestine or prevent their assimilation. In this context, rancid fats or oils that can be found in spoiled oilseeds or when given to cod liver oil are extremely dangerous.
Antibiotics also destroy vitamins. A treatment with medications of this type (of course, only following the veterinarian's prescriptions) requires at the same time a greater supply of vitamins.
Animal charcoal that is sometimes found in mixtures of sand or minerals for birds not only absorbs bacteria and toxins, but unfortunately also vitamins. For this reason animal charcoal should only be administered sparingly and in small doses.
A healthy bird also spends periods in which it needs more vitamin intake. To these periods belongs, first of all, reproduction and molting. But at this point we must also mention any kind of stress, for example, disputes over the range when new specimens have been introduced in a group, overloads caused by transport, the frequent “hunting” of animals in order to Prepare them for an exhibition, as well as stay at the exhibition itself.
The two reasons cited last represent, without any doubt, the greatest stress for the bird. What results from all this with a view to vitamin intake in normal times without special stress?
Go here our advice on this topic: if you provide it all year long I think sprouted, some egg-based food and, in addition, you have them, green foods, you will have done the most important thing. Just in case, they should also be given a polyvitamin preparation once or twice a week at the dose recommended by the manufacturer.
In the period of preparation for breeding it is advisable to add a vitamin E supplement until the first egg is laid. Finally, a tip about the storage of vitamins:
When storing vitamin preparations, keep in mind that they should be stored in a cool, dark place. On the other hand, they should not use too old products either. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. as well as vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C can be damaged by the influence of light.
As a general rule, the expiration date on the package refers to the duration of the vitamins in the closed package. For this reason, you should NOT buy vitamins in too large quantities.
According to the latest scientific data, among the mineral substances, about 20 elements that must be ingested with feed are vital (as components thereof or as a mixture of minerals). The minerals necessary for life are divided into essential elements and trace elements.
The need for other trace elements for parakeets is not yet clear. These include tungsten (W), cadmium (Cd) and lithium (Li).
Various non-essential elements can cause toxicosis. In practice, this risk occurs mainly with cadmium (excessive amounts in green food and cereals from regions with industrial emissions) and with lead (excessive amounts in green food and cereals due to emissions of lead tetraethyl in the exhaust gases when the fields are next to busy roads).
The doses of essential elements that exceed the needs can also cause depressions in performance and metabolic disorders. The mineral content in feed is influenced, above all, by the factors listed below:
- Place where food grows (geological origin of part material> Mineral supply
The specialized stores offer good mixtures of food lime, so that when it comes to the supply of minerals, problems cannot appear. Sometimes you have to be careful with calcareous stones, since some have no nutritional value and only serve so that the bird can wear its beak.
Many breeders prefer the jibión, which should be soaked before giving it to the parakeets, in order to eliminate the salt that it can still contain. Sand also belongs to mineral substances, as an important component in the feeding of granivores.
Granivorous birds need these small particles of sand to grind the grains in the gizzard. An ideal mineral supplement consists of a mixture of crushed shells and pebbles of diverse origin. The bird chooses what it needs.
Water is an essential component of the animal organism. The functions of water are very diverse, virtually all vital processes require water. This is used for resorption of nutrients and as a means of dilution and transport thereof.
In many conversations between breeders, the issue of food often occupies an important place, while hardly any talk or talk about parakeets drink. Next we will explain the importance of the supply of clean and fresh water, vital for the parakeet, even as a bird in arid areas.
Drinking water and water hygiene needs
As we have said, every living being, also the parakeet, needs liquid to keep its metabolic processes balanced. Fluid intake depends on numerous factors, such as ambient temperature, body temperature, food, excretion, etc.
During the breeding period, there is a natural, and therefore physiological, stronger intake of water. The parents, especially the male, dilute the ingested feed with drinking water so that the chicks can assimilate it better and so they can digest it well.
Water intake is especially high when they are only given grain food, when they add sprouted food or special breeding, they need slightly less water. Another reason to drink more water is during the warm season.
Water intake during illness differs from this normal behavior during the course of breeding. A parakeet usually drinks more, especially if it has a fever and diarrhea. In these cases, the intake of water becomes vital for the bird, since with the increase in excretions it necessarily implies a loss of fluid in the body, so to speak, a “drying out” of the body with fatal consequences, such as thickening of blood, weakness, circulatory collapse, shock and death.
The lack of water can also lead to a stagnation in growth, this can be suffered by the chicks during the first week after having separated them from the parents. If they are sitting apathetically, with bristling plumage and do not feel like eating, this may point to this cause. For this reason it is very important that newly independent young people have good access to drinking fountains.
In most cases, birds are offered tap or well water, either boiled or straight from the pipe. In regions where the water is of poor quality they can also be given mineral water.
In such a case it is important to use water without gas or, if it is, remove it completely before giving it to the parakeets by removing or stirring the water. Whatever water is given to the parakeets, water hygiene is the only decisive for the welfare and health of the bird.
The most important point to ensure that water hygiene is sufficient is to change it every day and thoroughly clean the drinking fountain.
Many breeders change the water every 2 days, that is, at a rate of 48 hours. If we reflect on the large number of germs that are already in the water after 24 hours, we should not be surprised that at 48 hours there may be a number of germs that are dangerous and that can cause the disease of some parakeets or Even from the whole group. The water that is found more than 24 hours in the trough represents a risk of disease and for the life of the birds.
Drinking water supplements
Many breeders give vitamin supplements in the form of drops or powders through drinking water. Provided that these supplements fulfill their function and are administered following the manufacturer's instructions, there is nothing to object to.
But when the vitamins are given in the drinking water, it has to be changed after 24 hours or, better yet, before, since vitamin preparations sometimes contain substances that favor especially rapid bacterial growth.
Some breeders have a tendency to leave vitamin water in the drinking fountain for some time, in order to take advantage of these products better than. In part, they are quite expensive. However, that is very dangerous and also a wrong conclusion. On the one hand we have read that vitamins can favor rapid bacterial growth and. on the other, at 24 hours the vitamins have already lost their effects.
If disinfectants such as potassium permanganate, etc. are added to the water, that does not mean that we can give up the daily change of water, since these substances only have a weak effect and are only active against virulent germs, despite all these Means can be used to improve water hygiene, although I would recommend not adding them regularly. We must strive for our birds to suffer the least possible chemical load, as we ignore what effects they will have in the long run.
I think of grain
In the preceding sections the essential components of the feed have been described. Now we get to the actual feeding of the parakeets and we will deal with the question of how we can provide the birds with the nutrients they need.
First of all, we must make it clear that a parakeet has to feed in the most varied way possible, in the long term, only with the current grain feed is not guaranteed the success of the maintenance or that of the breeding.
On the other hand, we should not expect miracles of food, although we give the best I think we can never turn a small-sized parakeet into a pointer contest bird.
I think basic
The parakeet must have a good mixture of éranos as a staple food. This mixture must contain, at a minimum, the following components: birdseed, millet of the Upo "Silver", millet of Senegal, millet of Japan, oat seeds, black and hemp seeds.
These varieties of cereals that we offer to the bird contain proteins, carbohydrates and lipids or fats, with the following caloric content:
- 1 gram of protein contains 4.10 lime
- 1 gram of carbohydrate contains 3.75 lime
- 1 gram of fat contains 9.30 lime
Starting from the caloric content, one could assume that proteins (birdseed and oilseeds) can be substituted for carbohydrates (millet), much cheaper.
However, that is not possible, since for the formation of its body the bird needs proteins, which are formed from a series of amino acids.
In turn, these amino acids reach the body through proteins. If the body does not have enough amino acids, they will appear, enter the formation of plumage and muscles. Carbohydrates (starch and sugar) give the body heat and energy.
In the varieties of feed listed here it is seen that the caloric and protein content is much higher in oilseeds than in the birdseed or in the millet. Since our birds should only eat and eat limited amounts of oilseeds, we must regulate the protein metabolism with the birdseed that has 36% more protein than millet.
However, we must see if the bird has enough food giving it a mixture of birdseed and millet throughout the year. In addition, it should also be taken into account that the percentages and contents indicated represent average values, which may vary from year to year depending on the maturation conditions, etc.
As we have said, the bird needs, among other things, amino acids, that is, protein for the formation of feathers. For this reason during the molt they should be given more varieties of protein-rich cereals.
That also applies especially to the previous mating season. If we look at the composition of an egg (egg white: 88% water, 11% protein and 1% minerals, yolk 50% water, 17% protein and 33% lipids), it is clearly seen that both before as during the incubation it is necessary to give a meal rich in proteins.
The embryo consumes lipids and egg proteins. Very few fats and proteins can lead to the death of chicks shortly before egg hatching. Once born, the female feeds them with the “milk of the crop”, secreted in her crop.
Only a female with a balanced protein metabolism can raise quality and healthy chicks. However, we must try not to give too many protein-rich seeds to our parakeets, since these make parents easily want to hatch again.
A suitable composition to feed the parakeets is:
- 50% of birdseed
- 12% millet of the "Silver" type
- 12% of millet from Japan
- 12% Silver millet
- 12% millet from Senegal
- 1% black
- 1% hemp seeds
For more detailed indications about the most important components of grain feed, see the specialized literature.
I think sprouted
The addition of sprouted feed is essential for a parakeet breeder, especially during the breeding of the chicks. Then I will go into detail in the advantages of a germinated food supplement, as well as in its composition and preparation, and I will also point out the problems that food entails. But why should we give budgies also sprouted food?
Parakeets that live in their natural habitat have fully mature seeds only in a short period of the year. In almost all this time, the parakeet eats food that is in full development, that is, from germs to semi-mature grains.
When preparing sprouted food we offer our birds "sprouted" substances with which we get quite close to their food in nature. Outside the breeding period, each bird should be given approximately 1 teaspoon each day.
Letting the seeds germinate causes a biochemical transformation to take place in the grains, the main components of the feed, such as lipids. proteins and starch, break down to form substances that are digested more easily (e.g., starch is converted to sugar).
In addition, in the germination process a quantitative increase of some vitamins of group B takes place (especially vitamin B). The germ itself contains large amounts of vitamin E.
We must not fail to mention that it is often highly valued to give germinated seeds to birds. The germination process produces ferments that favorably influence digestion.
In addition, due to the activation of the metabolism, it favors nutrients for breathing (especially carbohydrates). Nutrient losses that originate from this process are up to 25%.
The composition of sprouted feed differs greatly in different breeders. Some of them only germinate peeled oats, others a mixture of oats and wheat.
But a mixture consisting of up to 50% peeled oats and 50% of a good mixed feed is preferable. To this mixture I still add a small percentage of various seeds (Katjang-Indjo beans. Thistle and black seed).
Preparation of sprouted feed: In shops you can find the most diverse devices to prepare sprouted food, and they all work more or less successfully. I prepare my germinated feed as follows:
First day: the amount of food needed is washed several times under running water and then put in a bucket, covering it well with amia.
Second day: After about 24 hours, all the grains that float on the surface are removed and thrown away, if the feed is good, there is little loss. The remaining feed is washed again several times under running water until it is no longer colored.
Next, I put the feed into a strainer or sieve placed on top of the bucket. Meanwhile, it will contain the new food that has been re-prepared. Water that evaporates below keeps the strainer's feed moist.
Third day: After another 24 hours the strainer feed is introduced, without washing it again, in a germination tray. As a "germination apparatus" I use a defrosting tray, of which are in stores to defrost frozen food.
Esta bandeja, que consta de tres piezas, es excelente para hacer germinar el pienso. En la bandeja inferior se pone algo de agua para que al evaporarse mantenga ligeramente húmedo el pienso de la segunda bandeja, provista de agujeros. La tercera bandeja sirve para tapar el pienso.
Los orificios de las bandejas central y superior proporcionan una buena aireación del pienso durante el proceso de germinado.
Cuarto día: al cabo de 24 horas más el pienso habrá germinado, todas las semillas buenas tendrán gérmenes más o menos largos, éste es el momento de darlo a los periquitos. Hay que vigilar que no se haya formado moho y que el pienso huela a “fresco”.
La temperatura ambiente durante el proceso de germinación será de unos 20-22°. EL proceso de germinado se puede acelerar de forma considerable aumentando la temperatura. Hay que vigilar que la germinación no avance demasiado, ya que entonces el valor nutritivo del pienso disminuye rápidamente (aumento del contenido de fibra bruta).
Finalmente, no debemos dejar de mencionar que, sobre todo en los meses de verano, hay que procurar mantener los comederos para la comida germinada y el aparato de germinación escrupulosamente limpios, dado que los restos del pienso germinado tienden a enmohecerse o a agriarse con facilidad. Todavía hay tomar mayores precauciones si se mezcla la comida germinada húmeda con el pienso de crianza.
Pienso de crianza
Es preferible llamar al pienso de crianza pienso blando pienso proteínico. Como ya se ha dicho en otro lugar, el contenido proteínico del pienso en grano es relativamente bajo. Aunque los periquitos parezcan tener bastante con una pura mezcla de granos fuera del período de cría, antes de la puesta de los huevos y durante la crianza de los polluelos es muy importante darles además tu pienso rico en proteínas.
Durante este tiempo los periquitos silvestres de Australia también ingieren comida rica en proteínas, comiendo pequeñas cantidades de insectos. Pero nuestros grandes periquitos de exposición necesitan una cantidad correspondientemente mayor de pro teínas en su pienso, ya que los polluelos crecen, en el mismo tiempo, hasta tener una masa corporal mucho mayor que la de los pájaros silvestres.
Las opiniones de los criadores acerca de la composición del pienso de crianza difieren mucho. Por un lado, les dan pienso de crianza comercial, bien seco o bien grumoso y húmedo v, por otro, elaboran ellos mismos esta comida proteínica siguiendo “recetas secretas”. En el mercado hay mezclas de pienso de crianza que todavía se han de humedecer.
Eso puede hacerse conjugo de zanahorias, leche o agua. Otros fabricantes de pienso de crianza ofrecen comida “lista para tomar”. En el caso de este pienso húmedo hay que vigilar que el contenido de humedad no se haya introducido mediante semillas oleaginosas o grasas, pues de lo contrario existe el riesgo de que se vuelva rancio.
Por regla general, el pienso de crianza de los comercios tiene la suficiente cantidad de proteínas, cosa que se logra, entre otras, mezclándolo con huevo en polvo e insectos.
Los fabricantes que están convencidos de la calidad de su pienso, indican en el paquete el análisis del mismo, otras casas lo silencian, según dicen, por razones de la competencia. Para preparar nosotros mismos una comida de crianza utilizaremos como base panecillos, galleta o tostadas remojadas en leche o en agua.
Una vez remojada, esta masa se exprime y se provee de toda clase de ingredientes: así, por ejemplo, se le añade levadura, alimentos infantiles, harina de soja, germen de trigo, sustancias minerales, glucosa, insectos molidos, cáscaras de huevo trituradas y muchas cosas más, aunque en cantidades pequeñas.
A fin de aumentar todavía más el contenido de proteínas del pienso de crianza que se obtiene en los comercios o del que elaboramos nosotros mismos, también se puede añadir huevo duro.
En el momento de dárselo a los periquitos la consistencia de este pienso debe ser grumosa y húmeda. Se ve, pues, que no se ponen límites a la fantasía a la hora de preparar un pienso de crianza. En relación al suministro de pienso de crianza son de importancia dos cuestiones básicas:
- el contenido proteínico debe ser lo más elevado posible,
- los pájaros han de aceptar este pienso.
En mi criadero les doy, desde hace años, pienso de crianza comercial. Me he dado cuenta de que los periquitos prefieren un pienso claro a uno oscuro y uno húmedo a uno seco.
Sea cual sea el pienso por el que usted se decida, damos a continuación algunos consejos:
- El pienso se debe comprar y darlo a los periquitos el menor tiempo posible después de la fecha de envasado.
- Hay que tener precauciones con el pienso que se vende a granel, ya que aquí ya no se puede averiguar con exactitud la fecha de envasado.
- La com >Pienso verde
Los criadores y aficionados sustentan las opiniones más diversas acerca de la alimentación con comida verde y de su valor. Según nuestra opinión es necesario darles también comida verde, además de la germinada y de los granos.
Como ejemplos citemos aquí: álsine, bolsa de pastor, armuelle, diente de león, milenrama, llantén, llantén mayor, acedera, hierba cana, artemisa, así como ortigas tiernas. También les gusta mucho comer avena semimadura y mijo semimaduro.
Hay que tener en cuenta que, en las regiones industrializadas, todas las variedades de pienso verde se han de lavar concienzudamente. Las hierbas pueden estar contaminadas, además de por los tratamientos con insecticidas o herbicidas, también por compuestos de azufre (la combustión del carbón y del petróleo produce S02), o incluso por gases de escape que contengan flúor.
También deseo advertir que no se les dé a los periquitos comida verde del ámbito de influencia de carreteras muy transitadas. Como ya se ha dicho, las emisiones de tetraetilo de plomo de los gases de escape pueden hacer que las hierbas contengan grandes cantidades de plomo, que puede intoxicar a los periquitos.
Si en las grandes ciudades no es posible conseguir las hierbas citadas arriba, se las puede sustituir por lechuga, endibias, rapónchigo, espinacas, acelgas, así como por las partes verdes de las zanahorias, por apio y por perejil. Además, también les gustan mucho las zanahorias y las manzanas.
Según AECKERLEIN (1986), los piensos verdes solo se diferencian poco en su composición. Es típico el alto contenido de agua (aproximadamente un 85%) y la baja concentración de nutrientes (proteínas 1-4%, grasas, menos del 1% y carbohidratos 2-3%). Según este mismo autor, el verdadero valor de los forrajes estriba en su riqueza en sustancias esenciales (vitaminas. minerales, etc.) y en las propiedades dietéticas debidas a la fibra bruta.
A fin de satisfacer su instinto de roer, todos los periquitos necesitan ramas (sauce, arce, roble, aliso, álamo, serbal, saúco, etc.). También les gusta roer ramas de frutales, pero hay que vigilar estrictamente que no hayan sido tratadas con plaguicidas.
Al darles a los periquitos ramas se consigue, junto a la satisfacción de su afán de roer, aportarles también la necesaria celulosa, la cual forma parte asimismo de su alimentación, así como sustancias tales como proteínas, oligelementos y componentes orgánicos.
Nunca se les debe dar a los periquitos la comida verde por la noche. El pienso verde no aporta una nutrición integral debido a que posee una escasa concentración de sustancias nutritivas y al hecho de que las del interior del núcleo celular están rodeadas por una membrana celular resistente (fibra).
La importancia de la comida verde estriba exclusivamente en su contenido en vitaminas y oligoelementos así como en una estimulación de la actividad intestinal. Si por la noche se les da a los peo quitos gran cantidad de pienso verde, los padres llenan los buches de las crías, cosa que se puede observar a través de su piel.
Pero ello significa que el contenido del buche se compone en gran parte, y en lo que respecta al valen nutritivo, de pienso de escaso valor, de modo que los polluelos no han ingerido alimento suficiente para pasar la noche.
Comederos y bebederos
Los comederos y bebederos de las jaulas y aviarios deben ser del mismo tipo, forma y la maño, a fin de poderlos intercambiar. Sobre todo, han de estar exentos de rendijas y grietas y se han de poder limpiar y desinfectar con la facilidad y a conciencia.
Los comederos y bebederos han de pesar lo suficiente para que los pájaros no puedan moverlos o volcarlos. La comida en grano es preferible ponerla en recipientes llanos de gran superficie, dado que de lo contrario se corre el riesgo de que la comida aún no ingerida se cubra de cascarillas.
Este riesgo existe, sobre todo, cuando se utilizan comederos automáticos. En ellos, la salida se puede taponar rápidamente con cascarilla y restos de pienso, de manera que el pájaro va no puede ingerir suficiente alimento. Eso puede conducir a que el animalito muera de hambre frente a un comedero “lleno”.
Por el contrario, en las zonas de vuelo los comederos automáticos han demostrado su valía. En esos lugares, los granos se le ofrecen al periquito en una gran superficie. Las cascarillas son “aventadas” del comedero cuando los pájaros acuden volando. También tiene sentido ofrecer la comida en grano sobre una mesa-comedero.
Para darles minerales, etc., son adecuados los pequeños “comederos de golosinas”, que también se emplean para el agua de bebida en la jaula de concurso o exposición. Para sujetar los jibiones los comercios ofrecen unos soportes especiales.
Para el agua de bebida han demostrado ser excelentes los bebederos automáticos o los fiascos. Gracias a su abertura relativamente pequeña evitan que el agua se contamine debido a suciedad o excrementos. Además, no existe el peligro de que los polluelos recién salidos del nido se ahoguen en un recipiente demasiado grande.
Los bebederos de material opaco enlentecen b formación de algas. Además, en tales recipientes los suplementos vitamínicos añadidos a. agua no se descomponen tan deprisa, ya que la acción destructiva de la luz está disminuida Por supuesto que también el agua de los bebederos automáticos se ha de cambiar cada día.
Por razones higiénicas es importante, que los periquitos entren en contacto lo menos posible con sus excrementos. Por eso. tanto los comederos como los bebederos no se deben colocar debajo de los aseladeros o perchas, para que no caigan excrementos en su interior.
Almacenamiento del pienso
El pienso, tanto los granos como el pienso de crianza, se ha de almacenar en un sitio lo más fresco y seco posible para que no se formen mohos a causa de la humedad y del calor. Por otra parte, si el pienso está almacenado en un lugar húmedo y cálido es muy grande el peligro de que sea atacado por ácaros.
A fin de evitar que en el almacenamiento se formen toxinas muchos criadores añaden un preparado a base de ácido propiónico. Si se hace, hay que tener en cuenta la dosis recomendada por el fabricante. El pienso en grano se puede guardar tanto en sacos como en recipientes con buena ventilación.
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