Advantages of sterilizing a dog, let's talk about it!


  • Sterilized animals gain weight: the sterilization of companion animals does not predispose to obesity. It is necessary for the animal to continue with the same lifestyle, according to its age, sex, size and to do enough physical activity. As long as the animal is active, it does not have to gain weight, as there are also specific feeds for sterilized animals on the market.
  • It’s good to raise once: It is false that dog or cat females have to breed once in a lifetime to stay healthy. There is no conscious relationship with reproduction as a necessary part of your emotional well-being. Their sexuality is different from that of the human and is totally dictated by hormones, so they will not present emotions such as frustration or the desire to have children at a conscious level. If the surgery is performed before the first heat, the chances of having breast cancer are almost zero. On the other hand, if it is done after the first heat, the possibilities increase up to 7%, going up to 25% if it is done after the second heat.

Sterilizing pets is important because.

Most people who cross their dogs or cats have good intentions and good expectations for all puppies. Unfortunately, at present, it is very difficult to get adopters for all puppies and that they are also responsible for the animal throughout their lives, especially in numerous litters. In the best case, an unexpected litter ends up generating anxiety and concern in the owner if he fails to place the puppies in suitable homes. In the worst case, the puppies end up abandoned or dead.

The decision to sterilize our animal is an act of responsibility towards him, basic to prevent and avoid health problems and general welfare. It is the best option to guarantee the birth control of dogs, cats and ferrets, avoid unwanted births and offspring.

By sterilization you can avoid the sacrifice and abandonment of thousands of dogs, cats and ferrets every year.


It is the type of sterilization most performed by veterinarians. The procedure involves removing the ovaries, uterine horns and the body of the uterus. This makes the dog or cat unable to reproduce.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Eliminate the heat.
  • Decreases / eliminates behaviors related to the instinct for reproduction.
  • Eliminates the possibility of pyometra, uterine torsion and prolapse (diseases of the reproductive tract).
  • Reduces the possibility of breast tumors.
  • Reduces the possibility of leakage.


In this procedure only the ovaries are removed and the entire uterus is left. Like an ovariohysterectomy, this makes the dog or cat unable to reproduce.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Eliminate the heat.
  • Decreases / eliminates behaviors related to the instinct for reproduction.
  • Reduces the possibility of breast tumors.
  • Reduces the possibility of leakage.


In this surgical technique, the uterus and part of the uterine horns are removed but the ovaries are preserved, which continue to produce hormones related to reproduction.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Eliminates the possibility of pyometra, uterine torsion and prolapse.
  • Hormones and behaviors associated with reproduction are maintained.

Tubal ligation

It is a surgical procedure where the right and left uterine tubes are ligated and a portion of each is sectioned. With this technique all structures of the reproductive system are preserved.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Fast and less invasive procedure.
  • Hormones and behaviors associated with reproduction are maintained.

of tubes
Inability to reproduce
Eliminate the heat
Eliminates / decreases the behavior associated with the instinct for reproduction
Eliminates the possibility of ovarian pathologies
Eliminates the possibility of pyometra and uterine pathologies
Reduces the possibility of breast tumors
The possibility of leakage decreases
Less invasive procedure

Laparoscopic surgery

All the techniques mentioned above can be performed through laparoscopy. A laparoscopic procedure uses small camera-guided surgical tools, which allows a much smaller incision than traditional surgery. Which translates into a safer and minimally invasive procedure.


  • Less painful surgery
  • Faster recovery


The testicles of the dog or cat are completely removed.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Reduce or eliminate reproduction behaviors.
  • Eliminates the possibility of testicular cancer.
  • Decreases the risk of prostatic hyperplasia.


It is the removal of a small fragment of the vas deferens, which leads the sperm to the urethra and the penis, respecting the integrity of the rest of the reproductive system.


  • Inability to reproduce.
  • Invasive procedure

Statistical table of reproduction of cats and dogs

Considering that a female has only two litters throughout her life and counting that half of the animals born are females that will breed in the same proportion (twice throughout their life) and that the percentage of survival of the females be 100%:

Years1 cat1 dog

Identifying and sterilizing your animal is beneficial

  • For you: because you will save yourself trouble and money in the future.
  • For your animal: because you will enjoy better physical and psychological health.
  • For the canine and feline species: because you will help maintain population control and decrease abandonment.
  • For the ent>

This campaign of identification and sterilization of pets is possible thanks to the participation of collaborating veterinary centers, who disinterestedly, and without receiving any subsidy or financial aid, adhere to this campaign.

With the support of: With the collaboration of:

Spaying a dog ... is it the same as neutering it?

Castration and spaying they pursue the same end: cancel the reproductive capacity of living beings. However, they are different processes.

Castration, on the one hand, is the removal of the dog's sexual organs, which not only implies sterility, but also makes all hormonal processes disappear. This is one advantage if you have a very aggressive dog, since castration will appease his character and territorial instincts.

In the case of females, castration makes jealousy disappear. There are two types of castration in female dogs: the ovariectomy, in which only the ovaries are removed, and the ovariohysterectomy, in which both the ovaries and the uterus are removed, that is, the entire reproductive system.

On the other hand, spaying a dog is different from castration. Sterilization annuls their fertility equally, but the dog retains its sexual organs. That is, we talk about a vasectomy in the case of males and a tubal ligation in females. In this case their hormonal processes are not altered, so the heat does not disappear, nor the dominant behaviors.

Advantages of sterilization for your dog

  • Spayed or neutered animals They live longer.
  • The fights with other dogs are over, since aggressive behaviors will be appeased.
  • It will prevent many diseases, many of them serious and deadly, like cancer.
  • Pregnancies in female dogs can also cause problems, but you won't have to go through them if it's sterilized.
  • Spaying and neutering avoid problems such as urinary infections and the development of tumors in the reproductive system. Especially bitches that already have a history of tumors, will surely have them again if they are not sterilized.
  • Your bitch will not have a psychological pregnancy.
  • You will eliminate the instincts of zeal in females, so it will not escape from home in search of a male.
  • In the case of the male, he will not be "forced" to run in search of a female in heat as soon as he detects it.

Advantages of sterilization for you

Sterilize a dog or not follow being a controversial topic for many people. But the truth is that this matter is surrounded by lots of myths:

  • "That a sterilized dog becomes lazy and fattening." Lie. It is true that you can alter your metabolism, but your veterinarian will know how to adapt your diet during the first months after the operation, either taking a special low-fat feed or eating less. And on the other hand, vague will only be if you don't take him for a walk. 😉
  • "It is necessary that bitches have at least one litter before being neutered." Not at all. Bitches do not need to have offspring to grow healthyIn fact, this has no impact on your health, it is not related at all. Also, they have no maternal instinct, so castrating your dog you won't be frustrating anything.
  • "My dog ​​has Pedigree, I have to make it reproduce." Noooo You have no obligation to contribute to the breeding of a breed. In fact, raising without experience is quite an irresponsible practice. And remember the canine overpopulation!
  • "Since he is male, it is not necessary to castrate him, if he has offspring, it is not my problem." Yes it is. It is true that it is the female who becomes pregnant, but this does not mean that you should disregard yourself, and less if the pregnancy is accidental.
  • "Castrating a dog is depriving him of his sexuality." Dogs do not need to have sex to live.
  • "I will give my dog ​​contraceptive medications instead of sterilizing him." Do not even think about it! That is not the way to sterilize an animal, It could be very dangerous!

Most of the myths about castration are reduced to one: "spayed or neutered dogs are traumatized and frustrated because they cannot have relationships or reproduce." And this is completely false. Sterilizing a dog is healthy, recommended and responsible. In fact, some associations even castrate stray dogs to give them a better life.

Why is sterilization important?

Sterilization is associated with many positive effects, both for society and for the dog's health and behavior. To benefit from your positive influence, the intervention should be performed when you are still a puppy since as the dog grows it loses effectiveness at the veterinary and behavioral level.

With castration, the process of sexual development stops, so that these unpleasant behaviors appear, health problems associated with the reproductive organ and we manage to avoid unwanted pregnancies that can lead to an increase in abandoned dogs. Here you can find out more about the importance of sterilization.

Below we detail what advantages we can see in both the female and the male, since each one benefits differently.

The advantages of sterilizing a male

The castration In males it is one of the most routine surgeries that we perform in our center and generally does not pose a greater risk than the use of anesthesia. Basically it consists of externalizing the testicles, removing them and suturing the skin. In this way we block testosterone hormone which is associated with certain undesirable behaviors and rule out possible diseases related to the testicles:

Territorial marking: The dog stops marking its territory since it does not feel the need to rival other males or attract females.

Leaks: Since his sexual desire is extinguished, with him the leaks disappear in search of females and the possibility of losing our dog in an oversight.

Aggression to other males: Not having to fight for females, fights with other males caused by this reason disappear.

Pursue and ride females: Not feeling the need to reproduce, the dog will be calm in the presence of female dogs in heat and prevent harassment.

Frustration: We reduce to zero the stress that causes our dog to have the biological need to reproduce and not be able to do it, in this way we will lower his nervousness and anxiety.

Health: We eliminate any possible problems related to the testicles, such as tumors and benign prostatic hypertrophy (enlargement of the prostate that can oppress the urethra and cause urinary problems) .This is important since it is estimated that 95% of 9-year-old males not castrated have BPH.

The advantages of sterilizing a female

Ovariectomy (sterilization) of females through surgery is the safest method to avoid jealousy and all the discomfort derived from it. Its performance is very routine and hardly involves risks beyond those of anesthesia. In summary, it consists of externalizing ovaries and matrix, removing and suturing. This simple process to block estrogens brings great benefits for the dog:

Breast tumors: Performing the intervention when you are still a puppy helps to prevent almost 100% the development of future breast tumors.

Pyometra: It is an infection of the womb that affects only non-sterilized female dogs for which the dog must be operated urgently and the mortality rate before and during the intervention is very high. This can definitely be avoided with castration,

Unwanted pregnancies: This is a problem for the family that has to find people who want to stay with the puppies and a problem for the dog that will spend enormous physical wear during pregnancy and childbirth for which she may not be prepared. This without counting the economic expenses associated with veterinary tests and controls.

Leaks: Since his sexual desire is extinguished, with it the leaks disappear in search of males with whom to mate and the possibility of losing it.

Bullying of males: Males can smell a female in heat several kilometers away, and there are many cases in which a dog has sneaked into a property and has left the dog that was in heat pregnant. It is also a great nuisance to walk with the dog in heat, since the males who are going will go behind her to ride her.

Machado for menstruation: By sterilizing the dog, we avoid the inconvenience of having to be constantly cleaning the intimate area and areas of the house where blood has been stained.

Anxiety: The non-sterilized dog has abrupt changes in behavior due to zeal, and her need to find a male increases anxiety and the frustration of not being able to reproduce.

Psychological Pregnancy: Contrary to what is thought, this is not a psychological reaction of the dog's longing for the circumstance of not getting pregnant. It is a biological response inherited from the past in which bitches that had not been pregnant could produce milk to feed the litters of other bitches in case the mother was missing. Psychological pregnancy occurs to many female dogs and appears a month and a half after each heat. Sterilizing them, we end this wear and tear of the organism to which they are exposed.


Castration is the surgical removal of the sexual organs, which causes hormonal processes disappear and that the character of the castrated individual does not suffer alterations, except in the case of being a very territorial dog becoming aggressive by sexual dominance, then castration will cause this behavior to be greatly reduced or even disappear. The females will no longer be zealous. In males this operation is called castration (removing the testicles), but in the case of females there are two ways to carry it out, if only the ovaries are removed we are facing an ovariectomy, however if the ovaries and the uterus are removed The operation is called ovariohysterectomy.


On the other hand we have sterilization, this operation is different from castration since in this case the sexual organs are not removed, even if prevents animal reproduction. In the case of the males it is a vasectomy and in the case of the females of a tubal ligation. Performing this operation the individual will continue with their sexual behavior, in the case of very dominant males sexually this dominance will not disappear and the females will continue to have the zeal, this is because the hormonal processes are not modified.

Both an operation and the other are minor surgeries that favor the health of our pets, their behavior and avoid reproduction and therefore help to reduce the number of abandoned and homeless animals.

Even so, we must always keep in mind that it is an operation under general anesthesia, so it is vital that it be performed under the control and responsibility of a specialist veterinarian, in an appropriate operating room environment and with the right materials.

In addition to being carried out in veterinary clinics and hospitals, there are protective entities that have the necessary infrastructure and personnel for this, offering more affordable prices and even in campaigns it can be free.

Advantages of sterilizing for your dog or dog

  • It is proven that spayed or neutered animals are longer.
  • It will reduce and even eliminate aggressive behaviors that can cause problems with fights with other males or females.
  • Many diseases are avoided, as it is also proven that untracked dogs are at high risk of getting very serious diseases that can lead to death.
  • Some of the diseases that we will avoid will be those that can be derived from the process of pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, which can leave sequels and even lead to the death of our dog and / or its puppies.
  • For females it is a huge benefit to be sterilized at an early age, since this greatly reduces the probability>

Disadvantages of sterilizing your pet

In addition to all the advantages and benefits we have seen before, there are also possible inconveniences of spaying or neutering of a dog or bitch. Obviously, some of them may occur but it is not very frequent since the operation is very simple and easy to recover. So, as long as everything is done under veterinary control and in optimal conditions and state of health, there is no reason to have any of these possible problems:

  • The operation is very simple, but as in any surgery something can be unexpected and complicated a bit, so the process can be lengthened.
  • Sometimes, patients take longer to finish waking up from anesthesia or sedation and feel well, so that disorientation or vomiting may occur for a few minutes or hours after the intervention.
  • If there is a bad postoperative period and the wound of this surgery is not properly cured, it can become infected and, therefore, we must treat this problem so that the health of our dog does not worsen.
  • In addition, sometimes the dogs that are recovering from an intervention or if they are feeling bad because an infection has occurred after this surgery, they can change their behavior and become somewhat foul and / or scary due to the discomfort or pain they feel. But this is a passing thing, until in a few days they are better.
  • If we neglect the fact that, after this intervention, our dog will have different nutritional needs and energy expenditure and we continue to offer him the same food and do not exercise enough, it is likely that he will end up gaining weight.
  • If a female dog is sterilized before 3 months, it is believed that there is a risk of urinary incontinence. Specifically, it is estimated between 4-20% of female dogs subjected to this operation at an early age may suffer from this problem. But, really, it is very unusual for a veterinarian to decide to sterilize a puppy so soon, since the safest and most common is to do so after 6 months of age.

Myths about spaying and neutering

There are many myths and false beliefs related to the spaying and neutering of our pets. Finally, here is a list of some of these outdated beliefs that have been discarded by science:

  • “My dog ​​will get fat in an uncontrolled way and will become lazy”
  • "To be healthy for her, my dog ​​must have a litter before she is neutered."
  • “Since my dog ​​is a breed with Pedigree, he must continue with his offspring”
  • “I want a puppy just like mine, so the only way is to make him raise”
  • "My dog ​​is male and it is not necessary to castrate them since I will not have the puppies"
  • “If I castrate or sterilize my pet the deprivation of his sexuality”
  • “Instead of sterilizing my pet I will give contraceptive medications”

Discarding these false myths, do you dare to sterilize your pet? Give him a full and happy life by your side, because being realistic your dog does not need anything else.

This article is purely informative, at we have no power to prescribe veterinary treatments or make any kind of diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian in case he presents any type of condition or discomfort.

If you want to read more articles similar to Advantages of sterilizing a dog, we recommend that you enter our Prevention section.

Hello Blanca! These types of behaviors are common in dogs that have lived confined and unable to enjoy well-being for a long time: they have not socialized well, tend to suffer fears, have maladaptive behaviors. There is also a genetic component, so it is not surprising that the child has a tendency to show the same behaviors.

Castration is recommended in male dogs since it reduces escapes and aggressiveness, although it does not eliminate them 100%, it is important that you take it into account.

Behavioral problems should be treated with a professional, since you need a work camp, a neutral dog and a specialist's guidelines to understand what happens and know what guidelines to follow in your case. Perhaps you never become a "normal" and sociable dog, but if you work you can enjoy a more tolerant and calm dog. We definitely encourage you to look for a specialist. Greetings!

It does not matter if you are 3 years old, you can sterilize it and in fact I personally recommend it, although it is best that you talk to your veterinarian. Diabetes is not a side effect of castration and sterilization. Diabetes is caused by genetic factors or by poor diet and obesity. I invite you to reread the article so you can see the various advantages of this step and the real inconveniences.

Hi Benjamin, we are going to try to solve your doubts according to the answer that one of our veterinarians has given us, which is dedicated exclusively to castration since 2011, Ángeles A. Martínez:

- Osteosarcoma has no predisposition in terms of sex (male or female) or in castrated or whole. In addition there are many types (mandibular, axial skeleton, ribs.). Each has a different behavior in terms of age of onset, aggressiveness and average survival time with treatment. And race and age are predominant factors.

- The risk of occurrence of urinary incontinence in female dogs of 4-20%, which has been specified in the comment, is recorded (not without controversy), in female dogs sterilized before 3 months of age. But it is strange that someone sterilizes a dog so soon, it is usually done over 6 months.

- About the risks of hypothyroidism, transition cell carcinomas. It can happen since we eliminate something that the body produces naturally. Despite hypothyroidism and diabetes, it is estimated to be a risk associated with obesity and it is common for neutered dogs to be overweight if their diet is not taken care of. And dogs do not usually develop obesity when they are sterilized early. Cruciate ligament rupture, by the way, is also associated with being fatter than normal.

- Hemangiosarcomas with the consequent cardiac tamponade also appear in dogs without neutering. As you indicate in your comment, it is a "it is a common cancer in the biggest BREEDS", so we could ask ourselves, won't its appearance be more influenced by genetics?

- Vaginitis, vulvitis, and others, of course they are seen in sterilized bitches before the year of age. And then. And they are resolved with a standard antibiotic therapy, and with a good dose of lactobacillus. If an owner wishes to wait for his dog to be 3 years old to sterilize it for fear of dermopathies, and urinary incontinence, or the possibility of developing Cystitis, is a really valid option, as long as it assumes the risks it is avoiding. Now, you should understand that cystitis, vulvitis, vaginitis. etc., they also develop in whole dogs, castrated at 14 months, small, large, of breed and mestizo, and that the percentages depend on the source.

Of course, in castrated animals, before the year or after, a much higher incidence of pathologies is detected than in the rest. Because those who go most to the veterinarian, are usually those whose owners have been concerned with sterilizing.